Report on one of the topics from the list below and explain in your OWN words its basic operation, and uses. Identify which basic operational amplifier configuration is being used in the application (inverting, non-inverting or voltage divider) and which gain equation is needed for the application.

- Comparators
- Summing Amplifiers
- Integrators
- Differentiators

Electronic Devices

10th ed.

Chapter 13

Basic Op-Amp Circuits

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

10th ed.

◆ Describe and analyze the operation of several types of

comparator circuits

◆ Describe and analyze the operation of several types of

summing amplifiers

◆ Describe and analyze the operation of integrators and

differentiators

◆ Troubleshoot op-amp circuits

Objectives:

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparators

A comparator is a specialized nonlinear op-amp circuit that compares two input voltages and produces an output state that indicates which one is greater. Comparators are designed to be fast and frequently have other capabilities to optimize the comparison function.

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparators

A comparator is a specialized nonlinear op-amp circuit that compares two input voltages and produces an output state that indicates which one is greater. Comparators are designed to be fast and frequently have other capabilities to optimize the comparison function.

An example of a comparator application is shown. The circuit detects a power failure in order to take an action to save data. As long as the comparator senses Vin, the output will be a dc level.

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator with Hysteresis

Sometimes the input signal to a comparator may vary due to noise superimposed on the input. The result can be an unstable output. To avoid this, hysteresis can be used.

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator with Hysteresis

Sometimes the input signal to a comparator may vary due to noise superimposed on the input. The result can be an unstable output. To avoid this, hysteresis can be used.

Hysteresis is incorporated by adding regenerative (positive) feedback, which creates two switching points: the upper trigger point (UTP) and the lower trigger point (LTP). After one trigger point is crossed, it becomes inactive and the other one becomes active.

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator with Hysteresis

A comparator with hysteresis is also called a Schmitt trigger. The trigger points are found by applying the voltage-divider rule:

and

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator with Hysteresis

A comparator with hysteresis is also called a Schmitt trigger. The trigger points are found by applying the voltage-divider rule:

and

Example:

What are the trigger points for the circuit if the maximum output is ±13 V?

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator with Hysteresis

A comparator with hysteresis is also called a Schmitt trigger. The trigger points are found by applying the voltage-divider rule:

and

Solution:

Example:

What are the trigger points for the circuit if the maximum output is ±13 V?

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator with Hysteresis

and

Solution:

Example:

What are the trigger points for the circuit if the maximum output is ±13 V?

= 2.28 V

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator with Hysteresis

and

Solution:

Example:

What are the trigger points for the circuit if the maximum output is ±13 V?

= 2.28 V

By symmetry, the lower trigger point = -2.28 V

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Output Bounding

Some applications require a limit to the output of the comparator (such as a digital circuit). The output can be limited by using one or two zener diodes in the feedback circuit.

The circuit shown here is bounded as a positive value equal to the zener breakdown voltage.

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator Applications

A comparator with hysteresis can produce a pulse with a variable duty cycle. For the circuit shown, Vout(max) ranges from 0 V to +5 V because of the GND and VDD connections on the LM311.

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator Applications

A comparator with hysteresis can produce a pulse with a variable duty cycle. For the circuit shown, Vout(max) ranges from 0 V to +5 V because of the GND and VDD connections on the LM311.

The input is the red triangle wave (0 to 4 V). The duty cycle is varied with R2.

With R2 set to 100%, a 50% duty cycle is the result.

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator Applications

A comparator with hysteresis can produce a pulse with a variable duty cycle. For the circuit shown, Vout(max) ranges from 0 V to +5 V because of the GND and VDD connections on the LM311.

The input is the red triangle wave (0 to 4 V). The duty cycle is varied with R2.

With R2 set to 5%, a short pulse is the result.

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator Applications

Question:

What will happen when R2 is set to zero?

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator Applications

When R2 is set at 0%, the comparator has no hysteresis, and the output is positive when the input triangle is negative.

Question:

What will happen when R2 is set to zero?

Answer:

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator Applications

By changing the GND ref to -5 V, another useful circuit is formed. The input is a 4 Vp triangle wave (-4 V to +4 V). The output is a square wave that is delayed by an amount that depends on the setting of R2.

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator Applications

By changing the GND ref to -5 V, another useful circuit is formed. The input is a 4 Vp triangle wave (-4 V to +4 V). The output is a square wave that is delayed by an amount that depends on the setting of R2.

Question:

What are the upper and lower trigger points when R2 is set to maximum?

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator Applications

Question:

What are the upper and lower trigger points when R2 is set to maximum?

Answer:

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator Applications

Question:

What are the upper and lower trigger points when R2 is set to maximum?

Answer:

= +3.94 V

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator Applications

Question:

What are the upper and lower trigger points when R2 is set to maximum?

Answer:

= +3.94 V

By symmetry, VLTP = -3.94 V

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator Applications

Simultaneous or flash analog-to-digital converters use 2n-1 comparators to convert an analog input to a digital value for processing. Flash ADCs are a series of comparators, each with a slightly different reference voltage. The priority encoder produces an output equal to the highest value input.

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Comparator Applications

Simultaneous or flash analog-to-digital converters use 2n-1 comparators to convert an analog input to a digital value for processing. Flash ADCs are a series of comparators, each with a slightly different reference voltage. The priority encoder produces an output equal to the highest value input.

In IC flash converters, the priority encoder usually includes a latch that holds the converter data constant for a period of time after the conversion.

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Summing Amplifier

A summing amplifier has two or more inputs; normally all inputs have unity gain. The output is proportional to the negative of the algebraic sum of the inputs.

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Summing Amplifier

A summing amplifier has two or more inputs; normally all inputs have unity gain. The output is proportional to the negative of the algebraic sum of the inputs.

Example:

What is VOUT if the input voltages are +5.0 V, -3.5 V and +4.2 V and all resistors = 10 kW?

10 kW

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Summing Amplifier

A summing amplifier has two or more inputs; normally all inputs have unity gain. The output is proportional to the negative of the algebraic sum of the inputs.

VOUT = -(VIN1 + VIN2 + VIN3)

= -(+5.0 V – 3.5 V + 4.2 V)

Solution:

Example:

What is VOUT if the input voltages are +5.0 V, -3.5 V and +4.2 V and all resistors = 10 kW?

10 kW

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Summing Amplifier

VOUT = -(VIN1 + VIN2 + VIN3)

= -(+5.0 V – 3.5 V + 4.2 V)

Solution:

Example:

What is VOUT if the input voltages are +5.0 V, -3.5 V and +4.2 V and all resistors = 10 kW?

= -5.7 V

10 kW

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Averaging Amplifier

An averaging amplifier is basically a summing amplifier with the gain set to Rf /R = 1/n (n is the number of inputs). The output is the negative average of the inputs.

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Averaging Amplifier

An averaging amplifier is basically a summing amplifier with the gain set to Rf /R = 1/n (n is the number of inputs). The output is the negative average of the inputs.

Example:

What is VOUT if the input voltages are +5.0 V, -3.5 V and +4.2 V? Assume R1 = R2 = R3 = 10 kW and Rf = 3.3 kW?

3.3 kW

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Averaging Amplifier

An averaging amplifier is basically a summing amplifier with the gain set to Rf /R = 1/n (n is the number of inputs). The output is the negative average of the inputs.

VOUT = -⅓(VIN1 + VIN2 + VIN3)

= -⅓(+5.0 V – 3.5 V + 4.2 V)

Solution:

Example:

What is VOUT if the input voltages are +5.0 V, -3.5 V and +4.2 V? Assume R1 = R2 = R3 = 10 kW and Rf = 3.3 kW?

3.3 kW

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Averaging Amplifier

VOUT = -⅓(VIN1 + VIN2 + VIN3)

= -⅓(+5.0 V – 3.5 V + 4.2 V)

Solution:

Example:

What is VOUT if the input voltages are +5.0 V, -3.5 V and +4.2 V? Assume R1 = R2 = R3 = 10 kW and Rf = 3.3 kW?

= -1.9 V

3.3 kW

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Scaling Amplifier

A scaling adder has two or more inputs with each input having a different gain. The output represents the negative scaled sum of the inputs.

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Scaling Amplifier

A scaling adder has two or more inputs with each input having a different gain. The output represents the negative scaled sum of the inputs.

Example:

Assume you need to sum the inputs from three microphones. The first two microphones require a gain of -2, but the third microphone requires a gain

of -3. What are the values of the

input R’s if Rf = 10 kW?

10 kW

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Scaling Amplifier

A scaling adder has two or more inputs with each input having a different gain. The output represents the negative scaled sum of the inputs.

Solution:

Example:

Assume you need to sum the inputs from three microphones. The first two microphones require a gain of -2, but the third microphone requires a gain

of -3. What are the values of the

input R’s if Rf = 10 kW?

10 kW

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Scaling Amplifier

Solution:

Example:

Assume you need to sum the inputs from three microphones. The first two microphones require a gain of -2, but the third microphone requires a gain

of -3. What are the values of the

input R’s if Rf = 10 kW?

5.0 kW

10 kW

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Scaling Amplifier

Solution:

Example:

of -3. What are the values of the

input R’s if Rf = 10 kW?

5.0 kW

10 kW

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Scaling Amplifier

Solution:

Example:

of -3. What are the values of the

input R’s if Rf = 10 kW?

5.0 kW

10 kW

3.3 kW

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

Scaling Amplifier DAC

An application of a scaling adder is the D/A converter circuit shown here. The resistors are inversely proportional to the binary column weights. Because of the precision required of resistors, the method is useful only for small DACs.

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

R/2R Ladder DAC

A more widely used method for D/A conversion is the R/2R ladder. The gain for D3 is -1. Each successive input has a gain that is half of previous one. The output represents a weighted sum of all of the inputs (similar to the scaling adder).

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

R/2R Ladder DAC

A more widely used method for D/A conversion is the R/2R ladder. The gain for D3 is -1. Each successive input has a gain that is half of previous one. The output represents a weighted sum of all of the inputs (similar to the scaling adder).

An advantage of the R/2R ladder is that only two values of resistors are required to implement the circuit.

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

The Integrator

The ideal integrator is an inverting amplifier that has a capacitor in the feedback path. The output voltage is proportional to the negative integral (running sum) of the input voltage.

Ideal

Integrator

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

The Integrator

The ideal integrator is an inverting amplifier that has a capacitor in the feedback path. The output voltage is proportional to the negative integral (running sum) of the input voltage.

Op-amp integrating circuits must have extremely low dc offset and bias currents, because small errors are equivalent to a dc input. The ideal integrator tends to accumulate these errors, which moves the output toward saturation. The practical integrator overcomes these errors– the simplest method is to add a relatively large feedback resistor.

Ideal

Integrator

Practical

Integrator

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

The Integrator

If a constant level is the input, the current is constant. The capacitor charges from a constant current and produces a ramp. The slope of the output is given by the equation:

220 kW

10 kW

0.1mF

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

The Integrator

If a constant level is the input, the current is constant. The capacitor charges from a constant current and produces a ramp. The slope of the output is given by the equation:

220 kW

10 kW

0.1mF

Example:

Sketch the output wave:

Vin

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

The Integrator

If a constant level is the input, the current is constant. The capacitor charges from a constant current and produces a ramp. The slope of the output is given by the equation:

220 kW

10 kW

0.1mF

Solution:

Example:

Sketch the output wave:

Vin

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

The Integrator

220 kW

10 kW

0.1mF

Solution:

Example:

Sketch the output wave:

Vin

Copyright © 2018 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Electronic Devices

The Integrator

220 kW

<

**Who We Are**

**Do you handle any type of coursework?**

**Is it hard to Place an Order?**

We are a professional custom writing website. If you have searched a question and bumped into our website just know you are in the right place to get help in your coursework.

Yes. We have posted over our previous orders to display our experience. Since we have done this question before, we can also do it for you. To make sure we do it perfectly, please fill our Order Form. Filling the order form correctly will assist our team in referencing, specifications and future communication.

1. Click on the “**Place order** tab at the top menu or “**Order Now**” icon at the
bottom and a new page will appear with an order form to be filled.

2. Fill in your paper’s requirements in the "**PAPER INFORMATION**" section
and click “**PRICE CALCULATION**” at the bottom to calculate your order
price.

3. Fill in your paper’s academic level, deadline and the required number of pages from the drop-down menus.

4. Click “**FINAL STEP**” to enter your registration details and get an account
with us for record keeping and then, click on “**PROCEED TO CHECKOUT**”
at the bottom of the page.

5. From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.

Need help with this assignment?

Order it here claim 25% discount

Discount Code: SAVE25

March 19, 2023

March 18, 2023